A&P online           (updated 10/17/05)

Be able to locate all of the bones and structures below on the drawings and on bones.

SKELETAL SYSTEM - BONES AND MARKINGS    
The Axial Skeleton:      cribriform plate
  Skull:                olfactory foramina
  Frontal                                                                                crista galli
     frontal sinuses;   (coronal suture)   Maxilla
  Parietal                      (sagittal suture)      maxillary sinus
     superior temporal line       alveolar process
  Temporal                (squamosal suture)   Zygomatic (Malar)
     squamous portion       zygomatic arch
     zygomatic arch     Lacrimal
     mastoid process       lacrimal foramen
     external auditory meatus     Palatine
     carotid foramen    Mandible
     jugular foramen      condylar process (mandibular condyle) 
  Occipital                (lambdoidal suture)      coronoid process
     foramen magnum      mental foramen
     occipital condyles      alveolar process
  Sphenoid      mandibular foramen
     sphenoid sinus   Inferior Nasal Conchae
     sella turcica   Vomer
     optic foramen  
     foramen ovale Hyoid                   \/
  Ethmoid
     ethmoid sinuses
     perpendicular plate                                       /\                   

 

Vertebral Column: (30 vertebrae) Thoracic region:
  General Structures:   Sternum
     intervertebral disks      manubrium
     body      body
     vertebral (neural) arch      xyphoid process
     vertebral foramen (spinal canal)   Ribs (12 pairs)
     intervertebral foramina      (7 true, 5 false, including last two floating)
     transverse processes ***********************
     spinous process Appendicular Skeleton
  Cervical Region (7)   Shoulder Girdle
     atlas     Clavicle  acromioclavicular joint  
     axis     Scapula 
     dens (odontoid process)       spine 
     transverse foramen       acromion
  Thoracic Region (12)       glenoid cavity
  Lumbar Region (5) Upper Extremities:
  Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae)   Humerus 
     sacral promontory    Proximal End:
     sacral canal        head
     auricular surface      greater tubercle
     sacral foramina (pelvic and dorsal)      lesser tubercle
     sacral hiatus      intertubercular groove (sulcus)
 Coccyx (counted as one, usually 4, often fused bones)      deltoid tuberosity              \/
                \/                                                                          
Appendicular Skeleton    Distal End of humerus: 
Pelvic Girdle:      trochlea
   greater (false) pelvis      medial and lateral epicondyles
    lesser (true) pelvis   Ulna
Coxal Bones (Os coxa): ilium, ischium, pubis, acetabulum    Proximal End: olecranon process
  Ilium - iliac crest, greater sciatic notch      coronoid process
  Ischium      trochlear (semilunar) notch
  Pubis - symphysis pubis    Distal End: styloid process
Lower Extremities:   Radius
  Femur     Proximal:
   Proximal end:       head  
     gluteal tuberosity      radial tuberosity
     greater & lesser trochanter      Distal:  ulnar notch
     linea aspera   Carpals
   Distal end:   medial and lateral condyles & epicondyles   Metacarpals
  Patella   Phalanges
  Tibia - tibial tuberosity and medial malleolus  
  Fibula - head and lateral malleolus  
  Tarsals - talus and calcaneus  
  Metatarsals   
  Phalanges  

Be able to identify the types of bones: long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid.

Axial skeleton:

Be able to identify the bones and structures on your list on the following sketches and on actual bones.

Anterior view of skull - 1.

Anterior view of skull - 2.

Bones of orbit.

Skull, lateral view.

Skull, lateral view.

Skull, inferior view - 1

Skull, inferior view - 2.

Identify structures on the sphenoid bone.

Identify structures on the ethmoid bone.

Identify bones and structures of the nasal cavity.

Identify bones and structures of the cranial cavity - 1.

Identify bones and structures of the cranial cavity - 2.

Identify bones and structures of the sagittal section of the skull - 1.

Identify bones and structures of the sagittal section of the skull - 2.

Identify bones and structures of the sagittal section of the skull - 3.

Identify bones and structures of the coronal section of the skull.

Identify all structures of the mandible; what is the sex of the individual shown below?  Notice the point on the chin.

Identify each of the fontanels below by two names on the lateral view of the skull.  What is their significance relative to brain growth and development?  Which one is the last to close, and approximately when does it close? 

Identify structures on the infantile skull, superior view.

Identify each region, landmark, and type of curve (primary vs. secondary), and describe approximately when each develops.  Be able to name and describe three types of abnormal spinal curves.

Name the parts of the vertebrae, and be able to identify each type by numbers and distinguishing characteristics. Identify the structures on the atlas.

Identify the structures on the axis.

Identify the structures on the cervical vertebrae.

Identify the structures on the thoracic vertebrae.

Identify the structures on the lumbar vertebrae.

Identify the structures on the sacrum and coccyx.

Be able to identify each region of ribs and of the sternum. 

Identify the parts of a rib, and its articulation with a vertebra.

Appendicular skeleton:

Identify the structures on the bones.

Identify all marked structures on the humerus.

Identify all structures on the radius and ulna.

Identify the bones of the hand.

What is the sex of the individual in the pelvis shown below?  Be able to distinguish at least five differences between male and female skeletons.

Identify all structures on the medial surface of the pelvis bones.

Identify all structures on the lateral surface of the pelvic bones.

Be able to list at least five differences between male and female pelvic girdles.

Be able to identify all structures on the femur.

Be able to identify all structures on the tibia and fibula.

Be able to identify the bones of the ankle and foot.